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Lithium ions migrate from a positive active material to a negative active material when charging. At the same time, lithium ions migrate from the negative active material to the positive active material when discharging. In this way, a cycle of Li insertion and removal is repeated in the battery. As a result, lithium is electrochemically deposited at a negative electrode while lithium is electrochemically deposited at a positive electrode. This reverses the polarity of the battery.
When the battery is charged and discharged, lithium ions move between the positive electrode and the negative electrode along an electric potential, and the positive electrode and the negative electrode are repetitively deposited and dissolved of the lithium as an electric potential is applied to the positive electrode and the negative electrode. That is, in the case of a lithium ion secondary battery, it is necessary that the electric potential at which lithium is deposited on the negative electrode is less than the electric potential at which lithium is dissolved on the positive electrode.
Conventionally, carbon materials such as graphite are used for the negative electrode. Graphite can reversibly intercalate lithium ions between carbon layers.
When the graphite is used for a negative electrode of a lithium ion secondary battery, a reversible electric potential at which lithium is dissolved on the negative electrode is 0.2 V or more with 0b46394aab